Thorell, 1856 (Ground wolf-spider)
Female carapace dark reddish-brown with distinct pale median band enclosing longitudinal dark bars behind the posterior eyes. Cardiac mark of abdomen is outlined with a thin dark border but of the same colour as the rest of the abdomen and therefore somewhat indistinct. Behind the cardiac mark are some faint, dark chevrons and paired light dots. Legs reddish-brown with vague annulations on the femora. Male usually with paler cardiac mark. The male does not possess a palpal claw.
Female 10-14 mm; male 7-10 mm.
C. L. Koch, 1847. (Ground wolf spiders).
Characters of genus:
Robust spiders with a fairly dense clothing of the carapace with short hairs. Median band on carapace broadened anteriorly and enclosing two longitudinal, parallel dark bars. The females of the four species can be grouped in to two groups of two by the colour of the cardiac mark. Trochosa ruricola and the somewhat larger
are characterised by having the cardiac mark distinctly paler than the rest of the abdomen. The cardiac mark of the two other species,
is of the same colour as the general colour of the abdomen, and therefore rather indistinct. Male cardiac marks of the two latter species are often light and the colour in this sex is therefore not a reliable character in grouping species. However, adult males can be grouped by whether they possess a palpal claw, which is the case for
. Males of all species with tibia, metatarsi and tarsi darkened on legs I. Nocturnal spiders that spend the daytime hidden in leaf litter, moss, etc. Females with eggsacks make a small burrow where they remain until the spiderlings emerge.
Sundevall, 1833 (Wolf Spiders).
Characters of family:
The lycosids belong to the group of araneomorph, ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 3 tarsal claws. The eyes are all dark in colour and arranged in
in a characteristic fashion. The anterior row has four small eyes set in a straight or slightly curved row, the second row has two large eyes further up on the on the vertical front, and the posterior row has two medium-sized eyes on the sides of the head which can be more or less steep sided. There are only few additional diagnostic characters of importance for the family, i.e. the lack of a retrolateral tibial apophysis on the male palp and that the female of many species carries her egg sack attached to the spinners. The carapace is longer than wide with the head region narrowed and high. It is usually densely covered with hairs and often with longitudinal median or lateral bands or both. In some genera there are characteristic bars in the median band or elongate U-, Y-shaped marks. The
is oval to shield shaped (scutiform). The chelicerae are relatively strong with toothed cheliceral furrow and prominent
is a wide as long, about half the length of endites. Legs are spinose and provided with 3 tarsal claws, usually with scopulae for adhesion. The second segments of the legs (trochanters) are notched. The abdomen is oval, always covered with dense hairs. There is no colulus in front of the spinners. The tracheal spiracle is situated just in front of the spinners. The epigyne is well sclerotized median septum which may be large and plate-like. The male palp is only rarely provided with a tibial apophysis. The tip of the male palp may have one or more claws.
Female abdominal markings
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