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Hyptiotes paradoxus  (C. L. Koch, 1834) (Triangle Spider)
≤ 1900   1901-1979   1980-2005   2006 ≤
Description: Odd spider with eyes arranged widely apart. The abdomen is rounded triangular in lateral view. The spider is mottled in shades of reddishbrow, yellowish brown or grey, sometimes with white bands along the sides. The spider is extremely well camuoflaged when sitting on dead branches. The palpal organs are very large and projecting, about the same size as the cephalothorax. Size: Female 5-6 mm; male 3-4 mm.

Genus: Hyptiotes Walckenaer, 1837. Characters of genus: Hyptiotes spin an easily recognisable web triangular in shape being a sector of about 45 degrees of an orb web.

Family: Uloboridae Thorell, 1869 (Cribellate Orb Weavers). Characters of family: The uloborids are entelegyne, cribellate spiders having four or eight eyes and three tarsal claws. They eyes are arranged in two rows of four in the subfamilies Hyptiotinae and Uloborinae. In Miagrammopinae the anterior row is reduced leaving just one row of four. The fourth subfamily, Tangaroinae, has mixed arrangement of the eyes since this subfamily is defined by other characters than carapace morphology. The eyes of Hyptiotes are very peculiar since they are placed rather far back on the carapace. The posterior row is situated about midway on the carapace and the laterals are placed on tubercles. The anterior row is also well removed from the front of the head. Uloborids are also characterized by a dorsally compressed, curved metatarsus IV possessing a uniseriate calamistrum (often absent in males). Additionally diagnostic characters include rows of long trichobothria on femora and the absence of poison glands. The carapace form is very different among the subfamilies and varies from long and narrow (Miagrammopinae) to ovoid (Uloborinae) and triangular (Hyptiotinae). The carapace is clothed with plumose hairs except in the Uloborinae. The sternum is divided in Miagrammopinae but undivided in other subfamilies. The shape is variable, some long, some oval, and some roughly triangular. The chelicerae do not possess a lateral condyle or poison glands. The fang furrows are provided with a cluster of small teeth or with fewer larger teeth. The shape of the labium is also very different among the subfamilies. In Hyptiotinae and Uloborinae it is semicircular but longer in Miagrammopinae. Many species have legs I and IV the longest with legs II only slightly shorter than legs IV. In Uloborinae tibia I is provided with a brush of long hairs. The female palp is provided with a dentate claw. The abdomen may have one or more pairs of humps (four pairs in Hyptiotes cavatus). Usually the colours and body shape provide excellent camouflage but there are some exceptions, for example Uloborus walckenaerius is easily spotted in the field. The anal tubercle is large and two-segmented. The anterior spinners are three-segmented. An undivided cribellum is present in front of the spinners with the exception of some males. The tracheal spiracle is situated in front of the cribellum. The epigyne is with paired projections (e.g. Uloborus) or unpaired (e.g. Hyptiotes). The male palp is complicated sometimes relatively large compared to the size of the spider. The palpal femur has a small tubercle in many species.
Subadult male
Juvenile
Male
Male
Prey wrapped with silk
Male
Female
Female
Female
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