Both sexes entirely orange to reddish-brown with abdomen sometimes darker, usually reddish grey, rarely blackish. Abdomen with four distinct sigilla. Males have prominent head region and rather closely spaced eyes ringed with black. Tibia I is curved, thickened distally and with denser hairing ventrally. Male palpal tibia and femur swollen, the latter with numerous small black spines and with a single, pointed tooth distally.
Female 2.6-3.3 mm; male 2.5-2.7 mm.
Characters of genus:
The species range in size from 2.0-3.7 mm. The cephalothorax and legs are bright orange, orange red or reddish brown. The male head carries no lobe but is slightly raised. Sternum at least as wide as long with coxae IV widely separated. Legs fairly long and slender. Leg spines are short, shorter and weaker in males than in females. Males have tibia I and to a lesser degree tibia II curved and swollen distally. They are furnished ventrally with many long hairs or bristles. Also metatarsi I and II and femora I and II are provided with many short spines or bristles ventrally. There is a single spine on each tibia in both sexes. All metatarsi with a trichobothrium. Tm I range from 0.75-0.95 (Millidge 1981). The tarsal claws are pectinated, consisting of narrow, needle-like teeth. The pectination is different in almost all other groups of spiders with pectinate claws (Millidge 1981). Abdomen globular, often reddish with four sigilla dorsally. There is no scutum. The male palpal femur is swollen in some species. The epigynes of all
species have the same general appearance, and depending on the number of species at a given locality specimens may be identifiable with a lens.
Blackwall, 1859 (Line Weaving Spiders).
Characters of family:
The linyphiids belong to the group of ecribellate spider families having 8 eyes and 3 tarsal claws. The eyes are arranged in 2 rows of 4, usually heterogeneous in size with the anterior medials smaller than the rest. Frequently, the eyes are ringed with black, this being most noticeable in species with lighter coloured carapaces such as many species of the Linyphiinae subfamily. Some species adapted to dark habitats have the eyes much reduced, sometimes being very minute in size or only evidenced by pale markings under the integument (e.g.
). The carapace is highly variable especially in the smaller species belonging to the Erigoninae subfamily. Males of this large subfamily frequently have the frontal region modified into strangely formed lobes or bear other types of protuberances some of which may have tufts of hairs. Some species have the carapace punctured with pits (see images of
). The males may also have sulci (grooves) running backwards from the posterior eyes. The chelicerae do not possess a lateral condyle (boss at base of chelicer). The outer side of the chelicerae have horizontal stridulating ridges visible in many species. Such ridges only occur scattered in other spider families (see for example images of ridges in
of the Tetragnathidae). The labium is strongly rebordered as in the Nesticidae, Araneidae, and Tetragnathidae. The endites are usually parallel. Legs are slender and provided with spines. The number of spines on the legs is an important character for species identification when this is undertaken using the stereomicroscope. The abdomen is nearly always longer than wide sometimes with a pattern (Linyphiinae in particular) and sometimes mainly uniformly coloured, very often blackish (Erigoninae in particular). Some species posses an abdominal scutum as for example some members of the
genus. The epigynes are variable, sometimes simple as in the Erigoninae or provided with a scapus as often seen in the Linyphiinae. The male palp often possesses an U-shaped paracymbium. The family was earlier divided in to two subfamilies, which sometimes were elevated to family status: the Linyphiidae and Erigonidae (also known as Micryphantidae). The Linyphiidae was characterized by not having tibial apophyses on the male palp, by having a claw on the female palp in most species, and by having two dorsal spines on tibia IV or if only one spine present there was one short spine on metatarsi I and II. The Erigonidae was characterized by having at least one tibial apophyses on the male palp, by lacking a claw on the female palp, and by having just a single dorsal spine on tibia IV and with the metatarsi spineless, or all spines lacking altogether. However, the family is now divided in to seven subfamilies, the Dubiaraneinae, Erigoninae, Ipainae, Linyphiinae, Micronetinae, Mynogleninae, and Stemonyphantinae. Consult recent literature or Wikipedia for lists of subfamily genera. See also
Linyphiid Spiders Of The World
by Andrei Tanasevitch and
LinyGen: Linyphioid Genera of the World (Pimoidae and Linyphiidae)
by Gustavo Hormiga, Dimitar Dimitrov, Jeremy A. Miller and Fernando Alvarez-Padilla.
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